What Is Type 2 Diabetes – Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factor and More

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Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way it should. People with type 2 diabetes are said to have insulin resistance. People who are middle-aged or older are most likely to get this. This is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way it should. People with type 2 diabetes are said to have insulin resistance.

People who are middle-aged or older are most likely to get this kind of diabetes, so it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But type 2 diabetes also affects kids and teenagers mainly because of childhood obesity.

It’s the most common type of diabetes. There are about 29 million people in the U.S. with type 2. Another 84 million have prediabetes meaning their blood sugar (or blood glucose) is high but not high enough to be diabetes yet.

End of diabetes, so it used to be called adult-onset diabetes

HOW TYPE2 DIABETES TYPE OCCURS

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors

Type 2 diabetes symptoms:

The symptoms of type2 diabetes can be so mild that you don’t notice them. About 8 million people who have it, don’t know it. Symptoms include:

  • Being very thirsty
  • Peeing a lot
  • Blurry vision
  • Being cranky
  • Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet 
  • Fatigue/feeling worn out
  • Wounds that don’t heal
  • Yeast infections that keep coming back
  • Hunger
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Getting more infections

Dark rashes around your neck or armpits (called acanthosis nigricans) that are often a sign of insulin resistance

Causes of Type2 Diabetes:

Causes of Type2 Diabetes

Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It helps your cells turn glucose, a type of sugar, from the food you eat into energy. People with type2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don’t use it as well as they should.

At first, your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into your cells. But eventually, it can’t keep up, and the glucose builds up in your blood instead.

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors.

Risk factors :

Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:

Weight :

 Being overweight is a main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you don’t have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.

Fat Distribution :

 If you store fat mainly in the abdomen, you have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere, such as in your hips and thighs. Your risk of type 2 diabetes rises if you’re a man with a waist circumference above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman with a waist that’s greater than 35 inches (88.9 centimeters).

Inactivity :

 The less active you are, the greater your risk of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.

Family history :

 The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.

Age :

The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45. That’s probably because people tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as they age. But type 2 diabetes is also increasing dramatically among children, adolescents and younger adults.

Prediabetes :

Prediabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Left untreated, prediabetes often progresses to type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes :

 If you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you’re also at risk of type 2 diabetes

Polycystic ovarian syndrome :

For women, having polycystic ovarian syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.

  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck. This condition often indicates insulin resistance.

Complications Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you’re feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications.

Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or even life-threatening. Some of the potential complications of diabetes include:

  • Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis).
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy)

 Excess sugar can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Eventually, you may lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.

Damage to the nerves that control digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be an issue.

  • Kidney damage

Diabetes can sometimes lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

  • Eye damage

Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.

  • Slow healing

 Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage might require toe, foot or leg amputation.

  • Hearing impairment

Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.

  • Skin conditions

Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.

  • Sleep apnea.

 Obstructive sleep apnea is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions. Treating sleep apnea may lower your blood pressure and make you feel more rested, but it’s not clear whether it helps improve blood sugar control.

Prevention Type 2 Diabetes:

Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes, and that’s true even if you have diabetes in your family. If you’ve already received a diagnosis of diabetes, you can use healthy lifestyle choices to help prevent complications. If you have prediabetes, lifestyle changes can slow or stop the progression to diabetes.

A healthy lifestyle includes:

  • Eating healthy foods

Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains.

  • Getting active

Aim for a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes of moderate physical activity — or 15 to 30 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity — on most days. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride a bike. Swim laps. If you can’t fit in a long workout, spread your activity throughout the day multiple times.

  • Losing weight

If you’re overweight, losing 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.

  • Make your fitness plan:

Fitness is a key part of managing type2 diabetes. And the good news, all you have to do is get moving. You can start slowly with a walk around the block or a simple bike ride. The key is to find activities you love and do them as often as you can.

How you can start:

  • Listen to your body 
  • Keep track of what you do and stay focused on your goals
  • Build different activities into your daily routine
  • Start slowly and allow for recovery time
  • Figure out how much time per day you can devote to exercise
  • Set fitness goals—having clear goals can help you stay motivated
  • Consult your doctor to guide you for your physical activity

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